Seismic Forces
  • Seismic forces on structural elements can be significant
  • Earthquakes may trigger additional hazards such as landslides, soil liquefaction, and land subsidence
  • Should be considered in the design process
  • Structural and non-structural (building contents) retrofits should be used
seismic design process-Seismic Design Process-determine mapped seismic hazard and applicable seismic force-resisting system for the building structure, determine loads in accordance with building code requirements, develop load path for transfer of all loads to the foundation, including uplift, shear, and overturning, check strength of all load path elements, including walls, frames, beams, columns and foundation elements, and their connections, check anchorage for non-structural components of the building or structure, check for lateral loads on elements of structural and non-structural components, design secondary framing members.