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Admins: A user group within the Risk Assessment Database that have full access to the database.

Antiterrorism (AT): Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals, forces, and property to terrorist attacks.

Assessment: The evaluation and interpretation of measurements and other information to provide a basis for decision-making.

Assessment Team: The Assessment Team will coordinate the preparation of an assessment schedule, assessment agenda, and on-site visit assessments with the building stakeholders. The Assessment Team should be composed of professionals capable of evaluating different parts of the buildings and familiar with engineering, architecture and site planning. Other members of the team may include law-enforcement agents, first responders, and building owners and managers.

Asset: A resource of value requiring protection. An asset can be tangible (e.g., people, buildings, facilities, equipment, activities, operations, and information) or intangible (e.g., processes or a company's information and reputation).

Asset value: The degree of debilitating impact that would be caused by the incapacity or destruction of an asset.

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CBR: Chemical, Biological or Radiological

Checklist: The Checklist is a key tool in the preparation of the threat assessment and a fundamental element of your vulnerability portfolio. When performing a walk-through of the facility to be assessed, the Team should use the Checklist as a screening tool for preparing the vulnerability assessment and make observations when reviewing the questions included in the Checklist. The Checklist is organized into 13 sections (plus one additional checklist for COOP assessments). To conduct a vulnerability assessment of a building or preliminary design, each section of the Checklist should be assigned to an engineer, architect, or subject matter expert who is knowledgeable and qualified to perform an assessment of the assigned area.

COOP: Continuity of Operations

Critical infrastructure: Primary infrastructure systems (e.g., utilities, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) whose incapacity would have a debilitating impact on the organization's ability to function.

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Disaster: An occurrence of a natural catastrophe, technological accident, or human-caused event that has resulted in severe property damage, deaths, and/or multiple injuries.

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EULA: End User License Agreement

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FEMA: Federal Emergency Management Agency

Flood: A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from overflow from inland or tidal waters, unusual or rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters, or mudslides/mudflows caused by accumulation of water.

Full Data Users: A user group within the Risk Assessment Database that can view and update data.

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GIS: Geographic Information System

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Hazard: A source of potential danger or adverse condition.

Hazard mitigation: Any action taken to reduce or eliminate the long-term risk to human life and property from hazards. The term is sometimes used in a stricter sense to mean cost-effective measures to reduce the potential for damage to a facility or facilities from a disaster event.

Hurricane: A tropical cyclone, formed in the atmosphere over warm ocean areas, in which wind speeds reach 74 miles per hour or more and blow in a large spiral around a relatively calm center or "eye." Circulation is counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

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Mitigation: Those actions taken to reduce the exposure to and impact of an attack or disaster.

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Natural hazard: Naturally-occurring events such as floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, tsunami, coastal storms, landslides, and wildfires that strike populated areas. A natural event is a hazard when it has the potential to harm people or property (FEMA 386-2, Understanding Your Risks). The risks of natural hazards may be increased or decreased as a result of human activity; however, they are not inherently human-induced.

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POC: Point of Contact

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Reader: A user group within the Risk Assessment Database that can only view data.

Risk: The potential for loss of, or damage to, an asset. It is measured based upon the value of the asset in relation to the threats and vulnerabilities associated with it.

RVS: Rapid Visual Screening, which is a preliminary procedure to assess the risk of terrorist attack that is quick and simple to use. It is usable by screeners who are knowledgeable about building systems, but not necessarily experts in anti-terrorism or structural design. This will reserve the use of experts for higher risk buildings requiring more detailed assessment when resources are limited. RVS uantifies the risk to a building due to a terrorist attack that is capable of causing catastrophic losses in terms of fatalities, injuries, damage, or business interruption. The primary purpose of this screening procedure is to prioritize the relative risk among a group of buildings in a portfolio or community but it can also be used to develop building-specific risk information. It is intended to be the first step in a tiered assessment process that includes successively more refined analyses when more detailed information is needed.

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Technological hazards: Incidents that can arise from human activities such as manufacture, transportation, storage, and use of hazardous materials. For the sake of simplicity, it is assumed that technological emergencies are accidental and that their consequences are unintended.

Terrorism: The unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.

Threat: Any indication, circumstance, or event with the potential to cause loss of, or damage to an asset.

Tier 1:A Tier 1 assessment is a screening phase that identifies the primary vulnerabilities and mitigation options, and is a "70 percent" assessment. A Tier 1 assessment can typically be conducted by one or two experienced assessment professionals in approximately 2 days with the building owner and key staff; it involves a "quick look" at the site perimeter, building, core functions, infrastructure, drawings, and plans. A Tier 1 assessment will likely be sufficient for the majority of commercial buildings and other non-critical facilities and infrastructure.

Tier 2: A Tier 2 assessment is a full on-site evaluation by assessment specialists that provides a robust evaluation of system interdependencies, vulnerabilities, and mitigation options; it is a "90 percent" assessment solution. A Tier 2 assessment typically requires three to five assessment specialists, can be completed in 3 to 5 days, and requires significant key building staff participation (e.g., providing access to all site and building areas, systems, and infrastructure) and an indepth review of building design documents, drawings, and plans. A Tier 2 assessment is likely to be sufficient for most high-risk buildings such as iconic commercial buildings, government facilities, schools, hospitals, and other designated high value infrastructure assets.

Tier 3: A Tier 3 assessment is a detailed evaluation of the building using blast and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) models to determine building response, survivability, and recovery, and the development of mitigation options. A Tier 3 assessment typically involves engineering and scientific experts and requires detailed design information, including drawings and other building information. Modeling and analysis can often take several days or weeks and is typically performed for high value and critical infrastructure assets. The Assessment Team is not defined for this tier; however, it could be composed of 8 to 12 people.

Tornado: A local atmospheric storm, generally of short duration, formed by winds rotating at very high speeds, usually in a counter-clockwise direction. The vortex, up to several hundred yards wide, is visible to the observer as a whirlpool-like column of winds rotating about a hollow cavity or funnel. Winds may reach 300 miles per hour or higher.

Tsunami: Sea waves produced by an undersea earthquake. Such sea waves can reach a height of 80 feet and can devastate coastal cities and low-lying coastal areas.

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VBIED: Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Device

Vulnerability: Any weakness that can be exploited by an aggressor or, in a nonterrorist threat environment, make an asset susceptible to hazard damage.

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