Lesson 7: Application Activity

Lesson Objective

At the completion of this lesson, you should be able to successfully apply key course concepts in a scenario-based activity.

Through the scenario, you will have the opportunity to:

  • Determine incident complexity and incident typing.
  • Determine EOC objectives.
  • Determine appropriate level of EOC activation.
  • Determine staffing requirements for the EOC.
  • Describe information requirements for situational awareness and decision support.
  • Identify appropriate EOC actions to support resource management.
  • Identify considerations for deactivating the EOC.
Scenario: Liberty County

The scenario for this activity takes place in Liberty County.

Liberty County is located in the fictional State of Columbia, on the Atlantic Coast between Canada and Mexico.

Liberty County is primarily rural with large tracts of forests, grazing lands, and farmlands.

The population of the county is 302,412. Almost half of the population resides in Central City, and another quarter of the county’s permanent residents live in four smaller cities: Fisherville, Harvest Junction, Kingston, and Bayport.

Liberty County government includes a Sheriff’s Department, Emergency Management Center, Public Health Department, Public Works Department, and Board of Schools. The county infrastructure includes a dam and reservoir, a seaport, and two airports.

Liberty County Map
Example Map of fictitious Liberty County showing Marshes; Lakes; Airports; Interstates; State Routes; Rivers/Creeks; Railroads; Parks; City Boundaries.
Central City

Central City is the county seat for Liberty County and houses a population of 149,000. It is a diverse city with industrial areas, commercial areas, multi-family housing complexes, and single family sub-divisions.

Central City government includes a Fire Department, Police Department, and Public Works Department. The city has a separate School District, four Hospitals, and Two Universities.

Example Map of fictitious Central City showing Non Earthquake-Proof Bridges and Earthquake-Proof Bridges.
Your Role

You are a member of the emergency management community within Liberty County.

You are senior supervisory level person in the EOC during this incident. In this activity, you will apply what you have learned in this course to choose the appropriate EOC actions to support the initial response by the Incident Command.

Liberty County Fairgrounds

The Liberty County Fairgrounds are located northwest of Central City. Fairgrounds Avenue, the southern boundary of the fairgrounds, is one street north of the city limits, within the jurisdiction of Liberty County.

The indoor and outdoor facilities at the Liberty County Fairgrounds are utilized throughout most of the year.

Map of fictional Liberty County Fairgrounds. Legend is Box 1 Event Center, Box 2 Multi-Purpose Exhibit Hall #1, Box 3 is Exhibit Hall #2 Blue Exhibit Hall and Incident Location, Box 4 is Indoor Arena, Box 5 is Butler Livestock Barn, Box 6 is Fleming Livestock Barn, Box 7 is Outdoor Arena, Box 8 is Horse Stalls, Box 9 is Outdoor Stage, Box 10 is RV Parking, Box 11 is Grandstand, Midway Area is at top left, Horse Race Track is at top right, above Grandstand.
Liberty County Fair and Rodeo

It is the week of the annual Liberty County Fair and Rodeo. This event is hosted at the fairgrounds and attracts several thousands of visitors daily.

Early in the evening large crowds fill the 127 acre complex. People stream to and from the parking areas; traffic is congested; and the Midway area, outdoor stage, and Grandstand are filled to capacity.

Small elements of the County Sheriff’s office, the Central City Police Department, the Central City Fire Department and County Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are located in and around the fairgrounds to provide for public safety at the event. These organizations are operating cooperatively, but no centralized incident command structure has been established.

Three photos depicting Liberty County Fair and Rodeo.
Tanker Truck Crash

At about 5 p.m., a large truck traveling fast heading west on Fairgrounds Avenue veered off the road, jumped the curb near the fairgrounds entrance, and passed through the crowd. The vehicle stopped when it collided with an exhibit hall next to the outdoor stage.

A few moments later, as the crowd began to react, the large truck caught fire. Several people were injured as the tanker truck passed through the crowd. The scene was chaotic as some attempted to flee and others tried to help.

Public safety personnel on scene, law enforcement, fire, and EMS responded immediately to the incident. Both the Central City and Liberty County Emergency Operations Centers were notified of these events.

At the time of the incident, the city and county EOCs were at a normal/steady state activation level. EOCs are assessing any additional resources or other support required for the incident. The State of Columbia EOC is at normal/steady state activation level and has not yet been notified of this incident.

 

Establish Command

It is now 5:15 pm, 15 minutes after the incident began.

The Central City Fire Department established Incident Command.

Several single resources such as fire trucks, ambulances, and law enforcement have responded to the incident.

The incident is anticipated to be resolved within a few hours (a single operational period).

Hazards and Safety Concerns

The Incident Commander has identified the following hazards:

  • Vehicle fire with a potential to spread to structures
  • Potential for explosions if the fire encounters fuel or compressed gas cylinders
  • Damaged utilities that could harm incident survivors and responders
  • Potential structural collapse of the building hit by the tanker truck

The identified safety concerns include:

  • Harm to survivors or responders from the hazards
  • Injured people unable to self-evacuate from the immediate area of the fire
  • Uninjured people fleeing the incident scene
  • Traffic congestion that restricts responder vehicle access to the incident
Incident Typing

You should recall from this course that a useful way of characterizing incidents is by Incident Typing based on complexity.

Incidents are categorized into five types based on complexity. Type 5 incidents are the least complex and Type 1 incidents are the most complex.

Factors that impact the determination of incident type include size of the ICS structure, number of resources employed, and the length of time the incident response is anticipated to last.

Arrow pointing up with Type 1 at the top and Type 5 at the bottom. The illustration shows type 5 incidents are the least complex and Type 1 the most complex.
Incident Typing (Continued)

Review the following definitions and determine what Incident Type is appropriate for the incident in this scenario.

  • TYPE 5 INCIDENT: One or two single response resources with up to 6 response personnel, the incident is expected to last only a few hours, no ICS Command and General Staff positions activated
  • TYPE 4 INCIDENT: Several single response resources required, response will be limited to one operational period, select ICS Command and General Staff activated only as needed
  • TYPE 3 INCIDENT: Resource requirements will exceed the initial response resources, may extend into multiple operational periods, some or all ICS Command and General Staff are activated
  • TYPE 2 INCIDENT: Regional or National resources will be required, the incident will extend into multiple operational periods, most or all ICS Command and General Staff positions are filled
  • TYPE 1 INCIDENT: National level resources are required, the incident will extend into multiple operational periods, all ICS Command and General Staff positions are utilized and Branches need to be established
An image showing an inverted pyramid with different levels of incidents going from Type 1 (at top) to Type 5 (at bottom). The image depicts clocks with longer durations and more people as it moves from Type 5 to Type 1.  There is a bracket which indicates the vast mojority of  all incidents are Types 3, 4, or 5.
Clocks do not depict the length of the incident.
Activation Levels

EOCs are activated for various reasons based on the needs of a jurisdiction, organization, or Incident Commander; the context of a threat; the anticipation of events; or in response to an incident.

The level of activity within an EOC often grows as the size, scope, and complexity of the incident grow.

Based on your assessment of Incident Type, what would you recommend as an appropriate activation level for the Liberty County EOC?

 Activation LevelDescription
3Normal Operations/Steady State
  • Activities that are normal for the EOC when no incident or specific risk or hazard has been identified
  • Routine watch and warning activities if the EOC normally houses this function
2Enhanced Steady-State/Partial Activation
  • Certain EOC team members/organizations are activated to monitor a credible threat, risk, or hazard and/or to support the response to a new and potentially evolving incident
1Full Activation
  • EOC team is activated, including personnel from all assisting agencies, to support the response to a major incident or credible threat
Media Attention

As you increase your EOCs activation level to Level 2 partial activation to better support the incident, you receive additional information about media attention to the incident.

Numerous first-hand reports of the incident are on social media. One local TV station was on-scene when the incident occurred, but has not yet interrupted normally scheduled programming to report on the incident.

The incident has not yet been reported through online news sources but the EOC is receiving initial media inquiries.

It is anticipated that there will be reporting on this incident by the news media no later than the next news cycle at 6 pm.

Incident Objectives

You also receive information from the Incident Commander on incident objectives.

The Incident Command has not yet developed a written IAP for the incident.

Diagram with box labeled Incident Commander, arrow pointing to document labeled Incident Objectives.  Three arrows pointing from Incident Objectives to Strategies, Resources, and ICS Structure.

The Incident Commander identified the top priorities were to evacuate and treat the injured personnel. He identified the following initial incident objectives:

  1. Evacuate all injured personnel from the vicinity of the crashed tanker truck to the on-scene medical personnel within 15 minutes (by 5:30 pm)
  2. Provide on-site triage, stabilization, and hospital transport for incident survivors within 30 minutes (by 5:45 pm)
  3. Extinguish vehicle fire within 30 minutes (by 5:45 pm)
  4. Mitigate leaks of flammable fuels and compressed gas to prevent expansion of the fire within 1 hour (by 6:15 pm)
  5. Establish a controlled perimeter around the incident within 45 minutes (by 6 pm)
  6. Manage traffic on Fairgrounds Avenue, C Street, and E Street to ensure responder access within 30 minutes (by 6:45 pm)

EOC Functions

From this course you have learned that the primary functions of staff in EOCs include:

  • Collecting, analyzing, and sharing information
  • Supporting resource needs and requests, including allocation and tracking
  • Coordinating plans and determining current and future needs
  • In some cases, providing coordination and policy direction

We will explore these functions from your perspective as the supervisor in the Liberty County EOC.

EOC Objectives

As the EOC supervisor, you must direct the actions of the EOC staff. This includes defining what the EOC staff should be focused on.

Think about what you know about the incident and the Incident Commander’s objectives. Then, based on your knowledge of EOC functions, develop some initial guidance, or objectives, for the EOC staff.

Incident Objectives
1.Evacuate all injured personnel from the vicinity of the crashed tanker truck to the on-scene medical personnel within 15 minutes (by 5:30 pm)
2.Provide on-site triage, stabilization, and hospital transport for incident survivors within 30 minutes (by 5:45 pm)
3.Extinguish vehicle fire within 30 minutes (by 5:45 pm)
4.Mitigate leaks of flammable fuels and compressed gas to prevent expansion of the fire within 1 hour (by 6:15 pm)
5.Establish a controlled perimeter around the incident within 45 minutes (by 6 pm)
6.Manage traffic on Fairgrounds Avenue, C Street, and E Street to ensure responder access within 30 minutes (by 6:45 pm)
Incident Information Requirements

Collecting, analyzing, and sharing information is an EOC function.

EOCs need appropriate information to develop and maintain situational awareness and to support decision making.

Remembering that the EOC is supporting the incident, what important information do you assess the EOC should be seeking for this incident?

Incident Resource Requirements

Supporting resource needs and requests and planning for current and future needs are functions of EOCs.

The Incident Commander has identified the following additional incident resource requirements that must be met:

  • Ambulances with medical personnel
  • Fire trucks with firefighter personnel
  • Law enforcement for traffic control

These are resource requirements that can currently be met using the internal resources of Liberty County and Center City.

The EOC is in partial activation and resource requests are increasing so resource requests will now be handled by the EOC.

At this point in the scenario, do you see any actions related to resources that the EOC can take to support the incident?

Incident Action Planning Process

You can see that anticipating requirements is important for an effective EOC.

In this course, you learned about the Operational Period Planning Cycle, a sequence of meetings and briefings followed by the Incident Command to develop an Incident Action Plan for the next Operational period.

Operational Period Planning Cycle in the shape of a capital P. Shown in order on the image:Initial Response and Assessment, Agency Administrator Briefing, Incident Briefing, Initial Unified Command Meeting, Objectives Development/Update, Strategy Meeting/Command and General Staff Meeting, Preparing for the Tactics Meeting, Tactics Meeting, Preparing for the Planning Meeting, Planning Meeting, IAP Preparation and Approval, Operational Period Briefing.
Incident Command Structure

As the Incident commands is established, the Incident Commander informs the EOC that the following ICS functions were activated:

  • A Public Information Officer (PIO) to interface with the media and others needing incident information.
  • A Safety Officer to monitor incident operations and advise the Incident Commander on health and safety.
  • An Operations Section to plan and perform tactical activities to achieve the incident objectives.
  • A Logistics Section has not been established, but a staging area manager was designated under the Operations Section to meet the incident’s initial resource management needs.

The Incident Commander did not establish Planning, Intelligence/ Investigations, Logistics and Finance/Administration because he assessed they were not needed based on the size, complexity, and expected duration of the incident.

ICS Org Chart with Incident Commander at the top, and Command Staff at the second level: Public Information Officer, Safety Officer, and Liaison Officer.  Public Information Officer and Safety Officer are circled with a dashed line. Third level is the General Staff, with Operations Section Chief, Planning Section Chief, Logistics Section Chief, and Finanace/Administration Section Chief.  Staging Area Manager is under the Operations Section Chief, and both are circled with a dashed line.
EOC Staffing

Acting as the EOC supervisor, you have set objectives and determined your initial information and resources support requirements.

Now that you understand what you are trying to accomplish and what support is needed for the Incident Command, you need to think about how to ensure that your EOC structure will meet the support requirements.

There are several NIMS Management Characteristics that can be applied to determining the appropriate EOC staffing for an incident:

  • Manageable Span of Control: The EOC structure must be of a sufficient size to assist the EOC director in effectively supporting the incident. A key to this is controlling the number of subordinates or functions that each supervisor manages.
  • Modular Organization: What pieces of the EOC structure are needed to support the incident? Think ahead to the next operational period because what you need then often must be asked for now.
EOC Staffing (Continued)

The Liberty County EOC uses an ICS-like EOC Model. You are in the position of the EOC Director. The EOC is at a partial activation and you have limited staff.

Review the EOC Graphic and select two other functions that - based on what you know about the incident and the EOC role - you assess should be prioritized to be filled with available staff.

Keep in mind that all of these functions will be needed – the question here is what functions will need the greatest level of staffing at this point in the incident?

Org chart showing EOC Director at top, Public Information Officer under EOC Director, and Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance/Admin Coordination Sections at bottom.
Scenario Update

It is now just after 6 p.m. and the situation appears to be contained and improving.

There were over a dozen casualties and one death. All casualties were successfully stabilized and transported to local hospitals.

The vehicle fire initially spread to the building, but was extinguished before it could spread to surrounding structures.

The crowds are under control, but traffic has not yet completely cleared from the area and continues to slow the ingress and egress of emergency management resources.

The vehicle driver was located and the origin and contents of the large truck have been identified. Concerns that this could have been an intentional act or that the truck could have been transporting something hazardous have been eliminated.

This incident is decreasing in complexity and will transition to recovery.

EOC Deactivation

Based on the scenario update, what are some considerations for deactivating the EOC?

As the EOC Director, assess the following items:

  • Incident Command
  • Nature and magnitude of the incident
  • Hazards and safety concerns
  • Priorities and resource requirements
  • EOC activation level and staffing
Lesson 7 Summary

This concludes the scenario based activity for ICS 2200.

In this lesson, you applied key course concepts from this course in a scenario based activity including:

  • Determine incident complexity and incident typing.
  • Determine EOC Objectives.
  • Determine appropriate level of EOC activation.
  • Determine primary functions of EOC staff.
  • Determine staffing requirements for the EOC.
  • Describe information requirements for situational awareness and decision support.
  • Identify appropriate EOC actions to support resource management.
  • Identify considerations for deactivating the EOC.